The Five Pillars of Islam


SHAHADAH: Arabic text:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ

Romanization: ashadu allah ilaha illa’llah wa ashadu anna muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu.

The belief that “There is no god but Allah – (i.e. there is none worthy of worship but Allah), and Muhammad ﷺ is the Messenger of Allah” is central to Islam. This phrase, written in Arabic, is often prominently featured in architecture and a range of objects, including the Qur’an, Islam’s holy book of divine revelations. One becomes a Muslim by reciting this phrase with conviction.

*(Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam (ﷺ)- it should be said whenever the name of the Prophet is pronounced) (Al Ahzab-56)

*(The Shahadah is spoken as the first words a Muslim baby hears upon entering the world, and Muslims strive for the Shahadah to be their last words upon their death.)


The Five Pillars Of Islam

(Sahih Bukhari 8) [Sahih]


Muslims pray facing Mecca five times a day: at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and after dark. Prayer includes a recitation of the opening chapter (sura) of the Qur’an, and is sometimes performed on a small rug or mat used expressly for this purpose. Muslims can pray individually at any location or together in a mosque, where a leader in prayer (imam) guides the congregation.

The five prayer times fall between sunrise and midnight, although the times change depending on where you are in the world and the time of year, in line with the lunar calendar. The prayers in order are as follows;

Fajr; dawn, before the sun has fully risen

Zhuhr; midday, once the sun has passed the highest point

Asr; late afternoon, and before the sun begins to set

Maghrib; after sunset, once the sun dips below the horizon

Isha; between sunset and midnight.

Men gather in the mosque for the noonday prayer on Friday; women are welcome but not obliged to participate. After the prayer, a sermon focuses on a passage from the Qur’an, followed by prayers by the imam and a discussion of a particular religious topic.


ZAKAT (ALMS) is the money or goods contributed to the poor. In accordance with Islamic law, Muslims donate a fixed portion of their income to community members in need.

Zakat literally means ‘to cleanse’ but is recognized by many as ‘charity’. In Islam, it is believed that Allah SWT has intentionally created different levels of wealth for each individual to test humanity and generosity amongst believers. Every year, Muslims pay a 2.5% share of their held wealth (cash, property, gold, and silver) over a certain threshold to charity to help those less fortunate than themselves.

An important lesson of Zakat is the acknowledgeable that nothing we gain in this world is ever truly ours, it will not accompany us to the Hereafter, and it has no use to be buried with us. Rather than our wealth, it is our good deeds towards those who need help and support that will help us enter Jannah (Heaven) and this shouldn’t be forgotten.

[Also Know: Rulings Of ‘Zakatul Fitr'(Fitra)]


During the daylight hours of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, all healthy adult Muslims are required to abstain from food and drink. Through this temporary deprivation, they renew their awareness of and gratitude for everything God has provided in their lives—including the Qur’an, which was first revealed during this month. During Ramadan they share the hunger and thirst of the needy as a reminder of the religious duty to help those less fortunate.

There are two named meals when fasting, they are Suhoor/Sahri, which is the morning meal and is to be eaten before the sun rises and Iftar, which is the evening meal and may only be consumed at or after sunset. The daily fast is traditionally opened and closed with dates, which carry numerous health benefits.

As the Islamic year is based on the lunar calendar, it rotates by around 11 days each year; the month of Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is an incredibly auspicious month in which the initial verses of the Holy Qur’an were bestowed upon Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as a guidance for all mankind. This happened during the final 10 nights of this month, which is one of the many reasons why Laylat-ul-Qadr (the Night of Power) holds so much significance.

One of the key principles of this month is to attain taqwa (closeness to Allah SWT) and to instil fear of Allah SWT. The month itself holds countless rewards for those who seek repentance, practice, and give to charity.

Certain individuals may be excused from fasting subject to their circumstances – such as those who are ill, expecting a child, are underage, and so on. There are also certain exclusions for those who are travelling during the fasting day, too. Some of these exclusions entail a forfeit by way of donation if the individual cannot make up the fast later. This is commonly known as Fidya.


Every Muslim whose health and finances permit it must make at least one visit to the holy city of Mecca, in present-day Saudi Arabia. The Ka’ba, a cubical structure covered in black embroidered hangings, is at the center of the Haram Mosque in Mecca. Muslims believe that it is the house, Ibrahim (Abraham in English) built for Allah, and face in its direction (qibla) when they pray. Since the time of the Prophet Muhammad, believers from all over the world have gathered around the Ka’ba in Mecca on the eighth and twelfth days of the final month of the Islamic calendar.

Pilgrims must wear plain white clothing and enter a spiritual state of holiness, known as Ihram. Ihram helps promote unity amongst the Ummah in attendance, for no man or women, rich or poor, resident or traveller, stands above another. Regardless of our age, ethnicity, status and race, in the eyes of Allah SWT, we are all equal.

Hajj is followed by the festival of Eid-ul-Adha, which is where the time of Qurbani (festival of sacrifice) comes in. The pilgrimage of Hajj has no direct link with Qurbani as the time of Qurbani relates back to the sacrifice that Prophet Ibrahim was prepared to make in devotion to Allah SWT.

Kaaba (Mecca)

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